Since, Thousands of years filtration has been used to reduce the level of dirt, rust, suspended matter and other impurities from water. This is achieved by passing the dirty input water (influent) through a filter media. As the water passes through the media, the impurities are held in the filter media material. Depending on the impurity and the media, several different physical and chemical mechanisms are active in removing impurities from the water. Some of the equipment used to employ these mechanisms has changed dramatically over time. Other systems, such as depth filters, have undergone very little change.
The fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that occur during filtration havebecome better understood over the years. These advances have allowed watertreatment specialists to optimize the removal of impurities from the water. Filtrationsystems remove particulate matter and, because of the large surface area of filtermedia, they also can be used to drive chemical reactions that result in the removal ofseveral contaminants. The following mechanisms for the removal of impurities by agiven media are discussed in the next section.
After a review of filtration theory, the operation and design of the following process units is discussed.
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