India is the largest producer of leather and Leather goods. It covers major demands of world requirement. These tannery industries are setup in different parts of India i.e. Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Utter Pradesh. There are two types of tannery industries namely

[1] Raw leather processing and.
[2] Finished leather processing.


In Raw leather processing industries, Raw skin to be processed and convert in to semi finished or Gray Leather by removing soft skin, hair, fat, protein, oils with the help of chemicals mainly with Sodium chlorides and chrome. During this process there is large amount of wastewater generated which is very hazardous and without perfect effluent treatment is not possible to dispose. With existing effluent treatment i.e. with primary and secondary treatment it is not possible to control all parameters as per pollution board limit.

Similarly in finished leather processing industry, the gray or semi finished leather is converted in to finish leather by applying chemicals mainly chrome base and dyes and machining to add softness to leather. Again there is large amount of hazardous wastewater generated and very difficult to control parameters by primary and secondary treatment.

In traditional practice chrome tanning only 50 to 60% of the chromium applied is taken by the leather and the balance is discharged as waste. This chrome is in form of Basic chrome sulphate and is highly polluted and very difficult to treat by conventional method and generating waste sludge. This sludge is not easy to dispose inland. The environment limit for disposal of this basic chrome is only 2ppm. To control this parameter through conventional method is not possible.

In India all tanners has setup individual or wherever possible central effluent treatment plant in their area. But with existing effluent treatment process still some parameters like TDS, COD, BOD, Suspended solids etc are not controlled as per pollution board limit. Surrounding of tannery industries is also get polluted due to disposal in nearby land or river. Looking to future fresh water demand is increasing day by day, now government authority is demanding to recycle pure water from wastewater.

Here the membrane technology will be helpful for above requirement. Membrane technology can be added in existing effluent treatment as a tertiary treatment. Membrane process will definitely control all parameters as per pollution board limit as well as recycle pure water from wastewater depending upon quality of outlet of secondary treatment.

Membrane technology is widely applied for water treatment to convert Sea water or Brackish water in to drinking water or process water. It is also widely used for other process industries where concentration, separation, purification and /or clarification required for aqueous solution.

We at Fluid Sep Technologies, Ahmedabad has facility to conduct pilot scale trial either at customer’s site or at our factory to check the feasibility of membrane technology for controlling all parameters as per pollution board limit and also recycle pure water as much as possible.